Buck, J.J.H., et al. (2019): Ocean data product integration through innovation—The next level of data interoperability. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 32, Oceanobs19: An Ocean of Opportunity. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00032
Tanhua, T., et al. (2019): Ocean FAIR Data Services. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 440, Oceanobs19: An Ocean of Opportunity. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00440
Vance, T.C., et al. (2019): From the oceans to the cloud: Opportunities and challenges for data, models, computation and workflows. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 211, Oceanobs19: An Ocean of Opportunity. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00211
Meinig, C., et al. (2019): Public private partnerships to advance regional ocean observing capabilities: A Saildrone and NOAA-PMEL case study and future considerations to expand to global scale observing. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 448, Oceanobs19: An Ocean of Opportunity. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00448
Meyssignac, B., et al. (2019): Measuring global ocean heat content to estimate the Earth energy imbalance. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 432, Oceanobs19: An Ocean of Opportunity. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00432
Roemmich, D., et al. (2019): On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 439, Oceanobs19: An Ocean of Opportunity. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00439
Sloyan, B., et al. (2019): The Global Ocean Ship-Base Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP): A platform for integrated multidisciplinary ocean science. Front. Mar. Sci., 6, 445, Oceanobs19: An Ocean of Opportunity. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00445
OceanObs’19 was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, in September 2019. The conference presented a unique forum to share new ideas and concepts in marine data management and to emphasize the opportunities presented by a rapidly changing technology landscape. The OceanObs’19 conference was designed to bring: “… people from all over the planet together to communicate the decadal progress of ocean observing networks and to chart innovative solutions to society’s growing needs for ocean information in the coming decade.”
OceanObs’19 community white papers (CWPs) included the input of nearly 2,500 contributing authors. PMEL scientists and engineers led or coauthored ~20% of the 134 CWPs, which were published in Frontiers in Marine Science and are now available as a 3 volume e-book (See https://www.oceanobs19.net/community-white-papers/). A selection of PMEL-authored/co-authored OceanObs’19 community white papers are briefly summarized by their authors below.
Ocean data product integration through innovation—The next level of data interoperability
Buck et al. refer to the present state of data access as a departure point, using examples from a range of disciplines to present a web services model of data and information flows. A framework—including the systems, processes and human components—is described, offering a radical perspective on the delivery of knowledge from ocean data. A series of statements detail the components of a future vision, along with recommendations on how this may be achieved. The authors propose the development of virtual test beds for end-to-end development of new data workflows and knowledge pathways. Serious consideration is given toward maintaining the integrity of data through the data lifecycle and workflow, from observing platform to data archive.
Ocean FAIR Data Services
Tanhua et al. also address requirements and the need for data integrity. To achieve this, data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR). This paper outlines how these principles apply to ocean data, and includes a few illustrative examples.
From the oceans to the cloud: Opportunities and challenges for data, models, computation and workflows
Narrowing on specific data management IT infrastructure, Vance et al. describe the opportunities and challenges of hosting data and data management infrastructure on cloud platforms. While challenges such as cost models and support of legacy systems are identified, the shared IT infrastructure model put forward by cloud vendors presents unique opportunities in data and processing co-location, as well as the ability to scale to ingest an ever-increasing variety and volume of in situ and satellite data.
Public private partnerships to advance regional ocean observing capabilities: A Saildrone and NOAA-PMEL case study and future considerations to expand to global scale observing
The data-buy model is new to the in situ ocean observing community, and this partnership between scientists and commercial data providers is addressed by Meinig et al. The authors examine the process used in the PMEL and Saildrone collaboration to establish scientific trust in data received from Saildrone-borne instruments and a model for future private-public relationships.
Measuring global ocean heat content to estimate the Earth energy imbalance
Meyssignac et al. demonstrate how both Argo and GO-SHIP have been useful for one purpose (of many, but a very important one societally): increasing the accuracy to which the uptake of ocean heat (hence Earth’s energy imbalance, since the oceans are the dominant heat sink in the climate system) is determined through systematic, sustained, global-scale ocean observations.
On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array
Roemmich et al. highlight some of the successes of the Argo program. These resulted from making publicly available, in near-real time, over 2 million profiles of high-quality global ocean temperature and salinity in the upper 2 km of the ocean in the past 20 years with a global array of profiling floats, now approaching 4,000 strong. The authors also lay out the potential for substantial enhancements of a new, coordinated Argo program. Added missions would include sampling the full volume of the ocean with Deep Argo floats capable of profiling to 6 km and measuring biogeochemical parameters (oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll, and up to three bio-optical parameters) with BGC Argo floats.
The Global Ocean Ship-Base Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP): A platform for integrated multidisciplinary ocean science
Sloyan et al. detail the many accomplishments of the Global Ocean Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). These include assessing deep ocean warming, ocean carbon storage and transport, oxygen and nutrient cycles, as well as changing ocean circulation and ventilation patterns. They also note synergies with autonomous platforms such as Argo floats and gliders, with GO-SHIP providing reference data necessary for calibration and validation of data both physical and biogeochemical. They finally outline the potential for increasing focus on biology and ecosystems, hence ocean health, in GO-SHIP’s future.
Other PMEL-authored OceanObs’19 Community White Papers:
- Angove, M., et al. (2019): Ocean observations required to minimize uncertainty in global tsunami forecasts, warnings, and emergency response. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00350
- Barth, J.A., et al. (2019): Better regional ocean observing through cross-national cooperation: A case study from the northeast Pacific. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00093
- Canonico, G., et al. (2019): Global observational needs and resources for marine biodiversity. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00367
- Capotondi, A., et al. (2019): Observational needs supporting marine ecosystems modeling and forecasting: Insights from U.S. coastal applications. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00623
- Cronin, M.F., et al. (2019): Air-sea fluxes with a focus on heat and momentum. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00430
- Cross, J.N., et al. (2019): The knowledge-to-action pipeline: Connecting ocean acidification research and actionable decision support. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00356
- Foltz, G.R., et al. (2019): The Tropical Atlantic Observing System. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00206
- Grand, M.M., et al. (2019): Developing autonomous observing systems for micronutrient trace metals. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00035
- Hermes, J.C., et al. (2019): A sustained ocean observing system in the Indian Ocean for climate related scientific knowledge and societal needs. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00355
- Howe, B.M., et al. (2019): SMART cables for observing the global ocean: Science and implementation. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00424
- Levin, L.A., et al. (2019): Global observational needs in the deep ocean. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00241
- Moltmann, T., et al. (2019): A Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), delivered through enhanced collaboration across regions, communities, and new technologies. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00291
- Pearlman, J.S., et al. (2019): Evolving and sustaining ocean observing best practices and standards fostering interoperability for the next decade of science and policy. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00277
- Pinardi, N., et al. (2019): The Joint IOC (of UNESCO) and WMO collaborative effort for met-ocean services. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00410
- Sloyan, B.M., et al. (2019): Evolving the physical global ocean observing system for research and application services through international coordination. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00449
- Smith, N., et al. (2019): Tropical Pacific Observing System. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00031
- Subramanian, A.C., et al. (2019): Ocean observations to improve our understanding, modeling, and forecasting of subseasonal-to-seasonal variability. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00427
- Tilbrook, B., et al. (2019): Towards an enhanced ocean acidification observing network: From people to technology to data synthesis and information exchange. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00337
- Todd, R.E., et al. (2019): Global perspectives on observing ocean boundary current systems. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00423
- Wanninkhof, R., et al. (2019): A surface ocean CO2 reference network, SOCONET and associated marine boundary layer CO2 measurements. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00400