IMBER (Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research) and SOLAS (Surface Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study) both work to identify the most important science issues related to biological and chemical aspects of the ocean’s role in global change and effects of global change on the ocean, with emphasis on important issues that are not major components of existing international projects. The joint working group on ocean acidification coordinates international research efforts in ocean acidification and undertakes synthesis activities in ocean acidification at the international level.